Oral Presentations: POEM ANALYSIS

key aspects to consider in your oral analysis:

  1. You should demonstrate understanding of the thoughts and feelings expressed in the poem and how these are developed throughout the poem. What poetic devices serve this purpose?    Provide your analysis with enough evidence.
  2. Explain the second level of meaning of some of the words (connotations) that enhance the poem.
  3. Paraphrase the poem, that is, tell the poem in your own words.
  4. Explain the title and state to what extent it gives you clues to understand the poem.
  5. Explain if the rhyme pattern, rhythms, form and meter (line length, number of syllables, number of stanzas, etc) help develop the theme or not. If so, how?
  6. The language of your commentary must be clear, varied, precise and concise. You must keep your analysis formal and technical using words such as embody, depict, symbolise, portray, convey, tone, mood and theme.
  7. You can use a visual aid ( Ppt, Prezi) to support your presentation.

Felipe Parada – Lilian   (Monday)

Nicolás Whittle – Fatima   (Monday)

Martín Fernández – The burial of love   (Monday)

Alonso Jander – Duet   (Friday)

Nikos MacMillan – All things will die    (Friday)

Raimundo Bengoa – Come down O – maid     (Come down – O Maid)

Joaquín Alarcón – and I ask ye why these sad tears stream   (Tuesday)

Andrew Barroilhet – Blackbird   (Tuesday)

Agustín Letelier – By an evolutionist       (Friday)

Francisco Abusleme – Ring out Wild bells   (Friday)

Jeremy Ryan – Blow Bugle Blow       (Monday)

Check the assessment criteria below:


Alfred, Lord Tennyson – The charge of the light brigade





ATTITUDE (TONE): It conveys the speaker´s attitude toward the poem subject.







Elements of Poetry

Let´s start by a simple poem (Robert Frost´s Fire and Ice)


Some say the world will end in fire,

Some say in ice.

From what I’ve tasted of desire

I hold with those who favor fire,

But if it had to perish twice.

I think I know enough of hate

To say that for destruction ice

Is also great

And would suffice.



In-class Activity





To explore vocabulary in order to understand the text.

To review basic elements of poetry (themes, images)

To identify the overall structure of the poem

The charge of the light brigade




Further analysis

The charge of the light brigade analysis

Who is Alfred, Lord Tennyson?


What is poetry?

1. SCENE II. Another part of the heath. Storm still.

Enter KING LEAR and Fool
Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! rage! blow!
You cataracts and hurricanoes, spout
Till you have drench’d our steeples, drown’d the cocks!
You sulphurous and thought-executing fires,
Vaunt-couriers to oak-cleaving thunderbolts,
Singe my white head! And thou, all-shaking thunder,
Smite flat the thick rotundity o’ the world!
Crack nature’s moulds, an germens spill at once,
That make ingrateful man!


Dust of Snow
The way a crow
Shook down on me
The dust of snow
From a hemlock tree

Has given my heart
A change of mood
And saved some part
Of a day I had rued.

3. Bad tempered, I got back:

Then, in the garden,

The willow tree.

(Oshima Ryota)

Poems: 1. Mariana 2. The Kraken 3. Tears, idle tears Tears, idle tears, I know not what they mean, Tears from the depth of some divine despair Rise in the heart, and gather to the eyes, In looking on the happy Autumn-fields, And thinking of the days that are no more. Fresh as the first beam glittering on a sail, That brings our friends up from the underworld, Sad as the last which reddens over one That sinks with all we love below the verge; So sad, so fresh, the days that are no more. Ah, sad and strange as in dark summer dawns The earliest pipe of half-awakened birds To dying ears, when unto dying eyes The casement slowly grows a glimmering square; So sad, so strange, the days that are no more. Dear as remembered kisses after death, And sweet as those by hopeless fancy feigned On lips that are for others; deep as love, Deep as first love, and wild with all regret; O Death in Life, the days that are no more.   Continue reading

3. Narrative technique

Have you ever read a story of which you already knew the ending? Why can such a story still be enjoyable? Often times, how a story is told is more important that what is told. Writers use narrative technique to deliver a story. Interesting narratives make for interesting reads. In short narrative technique consists of four components: point of view, narration, speech and tense. We can understand the importance of all four and how they function by asking a few questions:
Point of view – Who tells the story?
Narration – Who is the narrator speaking to?
Speech – How do the narrator and the characters of a story speak?
Tense – When did the events of a story happen?
Writers can accomplish a lot with these four tools. In this lesson we will see how one story can told in multiple ways using these four tools. The texts are taken from Exercises in Style by Raymond Queneau. You can split up the work among four groups, but eventually everyone should have experience working with each aspect of narrative technique. Each aspect is accompanied by a printable worksheet. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to discuss narrative technique using various literary terms, which ties in to the third learning outcome for Part 4.

Point of view
Who is telling the story? This question can only really have one of three answers:

The narrator of the story – This corresponds to the first-person point of view.
The reader of the story – This is known as second-person point of view.
Someone else, an outsider looking in – This is what we call third-person narration or point of view.

Who is the narrator talking to? This question really has three answers:

Direct narration – The narrator can talk directly to the reader.
Frame narration – A form of direct narration, this is where the narrator tells us someone else’s story. Although the story is technically told in the first person, we see more of the third person.
Indirect narration – The narrator may not be talking to us. The narrator may be talking to a nebulous, or absent audience, telling for the sake of telling a story.

How does the narrator speak? How does the narrator have character’s speak? There are several ways speech is handled in narratives.

Direct speech – The characters speak for themselves. Direct speech includes the use of dialogue and quotations. We hear the character’s speak directly. Nothing is summarized for us.
Reported speech – Opposite of direct speech. Here the narrator summarizes what others have said and done. We are retold a story.
Free indirect speech – This is a clever device typical of third person limited narration, where the narrator slips from telling us about the character’s thoughts to simple writing the character’s thoughts.

When does the story take place? Really there are only three answers to this question:

Past – The story is told in the past tense. Since events are already over, the narrator can decide in which order to tell them and which events are most important.
Present – In the present tense, event unfold before the reader’s eyes. The narrator is just as surprised by the events as the reader and has no knowledge of where the story is going. Sometimes the story really took place in the past but is told in the present for dramatic effect. This is called the historical present tense.
Future – Sometimes entire narratives are about events that will happen in the future. These take the form of predictions or instructions.


Now that you are familiar with each aspect of narrative technique, try applying this knowledge to a text. Try writing a paragraph on narrative technique in preparation for an oral commentary or a Paper 1 commentary. Below is a text that is rich in narrative technique, the opening lines from The Gods Must Be Crazy by Jamie Uys. You can read this text and watch the video clip. What are the effects of narrative technique on the text’s audience? Write a paragraph that comments on all four aspects of narrative technique: point of view, narration, speech and tense.

NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE- Check for understanding


  • Select a passage from JANE EYRE and write a paragraph that comments on all four aspects of narrative technique: POINT OF VIEW, NARRATION, SPEECH AND TENSE.

  • Record your comments this using EDUCREATIONS.


Creative writing!
Perhaps the best way to develop an understanding of narrative technique is to try a bit of creative writing. You will watch a short music video that functions as a stimulus for the writing process. You can write alone or in groups. You can write with or without a word limit. Ideally the stories that you write should be read out loud in class, so that others can comment on the effects of the narrative techniques, including the use of tense, speech, narration and point of view.


Extra material 20151006075404125

Characterisation 2

In the previous activity on characterization (Characterization 1), we asked ourselves how writers develop a character through dialogue, action and narration. Rather than focusing on how writers construct characters, we will ask ourselves in this lesson: “How do readers respond to characters?” We all seem to have an opinion about characters in literary works. How do we justify our responses to these characters?

In this lesson we will focus on a passage from Untouchable by Mulk Raj Anand. You see several adjectives that could be used to describe the main character. You can agree or disagree with these statements, justifying your answer with reference to the text. This kind of activity can be applied to any work that you are exploring for Parts 3 or 4. Furthermore it helps us explore a work in detail, which is the first learning outcome for Part 4.

Character descriptions

Below you see a list of adjectives that may or may not describe the character, Bakhu. Bakhu belongs to a group of people in India known as the ‘untouchables’. The are considered so dirty that they fall outside of the caste system. Read the passage and state why you agree or disagree with the adjectives as appropriate character descriptions. You can print out this worksheet (PDF) to do this activity in class. Or you can create your own worksheet by using the template in MS Word below.



EXAM contents – Written task

Written task: Trabajo escrito basado en el módulo Lenguaje y medios masivos de comunicación. Opciones de tipos de texto: Brochure/Leaflet, Interview, Magazine article, News report, Report, Set of instructions, Speech.

Unidad: Language and Mass Communication To choose an adequate type of text with a clear purpose in mind
– To use terminology related to the varied text-types studied.
– To analyse the effects that language, structure, technique and style have on the reader
– To support and justify ideas with coherent examples.

Wednesday 02nd of July – 12:20 pm



Writing Rationales for Written Tasks
AssessmentWritten tasksWT1 skillsWriting Rationales for Written Tasks
Writing the rationale to Written Tasks, type 1 can be challenging for students. Historically, the idea of writing Written Tasks borrows from the now moribund Language A2 course. A frequent lament of Language A2 Written Task examiners was that students were simply too ‘wordy’; at times, students would write a rationale which was appreciably longer than the Written Task which it accompanied. In part, it is this experience that motivates the decision to delimit the rationale in the Language and Literature course to a maximum of 300 words.

Teachers should really encourage their students to aim for the upper word limit of 300 words. This word limit, however, must not be exceeded; if it is, one mark is deducted from the student. If students write less than 200 words, no marks are automatically deducted. However, in this case, it is unlikely that students will achieve the maximum of 2 marks available for the rationale that shows ‘a clear explanation and understanding of the aspects being investigated’.

The point made above about word length is so important that it is worth repeating: Teachers should really encourage their students to aim for the upper word limit of 300 words. Beyond this, of course, the words need to be well chosen and the rationale should be clear and concise. But what should the student include?

The study guide says that a rationale must (my emphasis) explain the following:

• how the content of the task is linked to a particular part of the course

• how the task is intended to explore particular aspects of the course

• the nature of the task chosen

• information about audience, purpose and the varying contexts in which the task is set.

Moreover, the rationale should not only include knowledge about the text or topic studied, but also about the formal conventions of the text type produced and how they relate to the aims of the task.

In the following exercise, teachers should ask students to read the rationale (below), and identify the extent to which the rationale achieves the criteria set out above. Can students find examples of where the rationale achieves the criteria? Does the rationale provide ‘a clear explanation and understanding of the aspects being investigated’? What recommendations would students make to improve the rationale?

Rationale: An Example
This written task relates to my study of the mass media and, in particular, to our focus on the language and structure of newspaper stories.

In addition, my written task is informed by my study of the ‘language situation’ in Quebec, Canada. In this part of my course, we considered the politics of English, studying a range of situations and contexts where speaking English was either advantageous or disadvantageous. Quebec is a francophone part of Canada. French speakers, I have learned, are often at an advantage in Quebec, whilst speakers of English are sometimes discriminated against.

I have learned that ‘language matters’, and that language cannot be separated from other aspects of social, cultural, and economic life. Accordingly, for this written task, I have written a newspaper story that is intended to be included in The Toronto Star. This is an English language newspaper, Canada’s biggest selling ‘daily’, and is ‘left leaning’. I have assumed that the editorial position of the newspaper would support a plurality of languages in Canada. Whilst, I believe, the newspaper would recognize the particular importance of English and French in Canadian life, it would be critical of discriminatory practices based on language.

My news story tries to convey this ideology. In the story, I discuss the (imagined) case of a man who claims to have been discriminated against for his refusal to speak French during job interviews.

The newspaper story is intended to look and read authentically. Thus, for example, I have included a range of features typical of this text type. It has a headline, a sub-heading, a byline, and a lead. Paragraphs and sentences are short. Words are simple. Quotations (‘accessed voices’) are included. ‘Naming’ is also significant, not least because of the way it tries to ‘skew’ the story.

297 words
Teacher’s Comments
This is a sound rationale. It is likely to be awarded 2 marks. At 297 words, it approaches the word limit, and the rationale is quite succinct. The student doesn’t make explicit whether the Written Task is based on Part 1 or 2 of the course. However, this is not necessarily problematic; the suggestion is that the Written Task, in terms of content, relates mainly to Part 1 of the course, and the relationship between the Written Task and the course studied is clearly explained. The medium for the Written Task is a news story and the student intimates that the conventions associated with this text type were studied in Part 2 of the course. The student suggests that the Written Task will aim for authenticity; that is, the news story will be written for The Toronto Star. Finally, the student does well to highlight some of the key linguistic features of the text type, but could perhaps make more explicit the relationship of language to audiences, contexts, and purposes.

All in all, this is a successful rationale. It remains to be seen whether or not the accompanying Written Task is equally competent.